# How to Perform Systematic Sampling in Excel

Systematic sampling is a method of selecting a sample from a larger population by choosing every nth element from the list. This technique is useful when you want to create a representative sample while avoiding bias. In Excel, you can perform systematic sampling using the following steps:

- Organize your data: Ensure that your data is properly organized in a single column or row, without any missing values or duplicates.
- Calculate the sampling interval: To determine the sampling interval (n), divide the population size (N) by the desired sample size (n). For example, if you have a population of 1000 and you want a sample of 100, the sampling interval would be 1000/100 = 10.
- Use the RAND or RANDBETWEEN function: In a new column, use the RAND() function to generate random numbers between 0 and 1 for each row. Alternatively, you can use the RANDBETWEEN() function to generate random integer numbers within a specified range.
- Sort the data: Sort your data by the random numbers generated in step 3. This ensures that your sample will be free from any potential bias.
- Select the sample: Starting from the first row, select every nth row according to the sampling interval calculated in step 2. You can use the MOD function to help with this step.

Here's an example of how to perform systematic sampling in Excel:

## Example

Assume we have a population of 50 students (rows 2-51 in column A) and we want to select a sample of 10 students.

- Organize the data: Ensure that the list of students is properly organized in column A.
- Calculate the sampling interval: Since we want a sample of 10 from a population of 50, the sampling interval is 50/10 = 5.
- Use the RAND function: In column B (starting from row 2), enter the formula
`=RAND()`

and copy it down for all the rows containing students' data. - Sort the data: Select both columns (A and B), then go to the "Data" tab and click "Sort" in the "Sort & Filter" group. Sort by column B, and choose either "Smallest to Largest" or "Largest to Smallest".
- Select the sample: Starting from the first student (row 2), select every 5th student. You can use the MOD function in column C to help with this. In cell C2, enter the formula
`=MOD(ROW()-1,5)`

and copy it down for all the rows containing students' data. Filter column C to show only rows with a value of 0. The students in the visible rows are your selected sample.

Remember to copy and paste the sample data as values if you want to preserve the results since the RAND function will recalculate each time the workbook is reopened or calculations are updated.

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